Application Gateway and Private Link

Welcome back fellow geeks!

Over the past few years I’ve written a ton on Private Endpoints for PaaS (platform-as-a-service) services Microsoft provides. I haven’t written anything about the Private Link service that powers the Private Endpoints. There is a fair amount of community knowledge and documentation on building a Private Link service behind an Azure Load Balancer, but far less on how to do it behind an Application Gateway (Adam Stuart’s video on it is a wonderful resource). Today, I’m going to make an attempt at furthering that collective community knowledge with a post on the feature and give you access to a deployable lab you can use to replicate what I’ll be writing about in this post. Keep in mind the service is still in public preview, so remember to check the latest documentation to validate the correctness of what I discuss below.

Let’s get to it!

I’ll be using a lab environment that I’ve built which mimics a typical enterprise environment. The lab uses a hub-and-spoke architecture where on-premises connectivity and centralized mediation and optional inspection is provided in a transit virtual network which is peered to all spoke virtual network. A shared services virtual network provides core infrastructure services such as DNS. The other spoke contains the workload which is a simple Python application deployed in Azure App Services.

The App Service has been configured to inject both its ingress and egress traffic into the virtual network using a combination of Private Endpoints and Regional VNet Integration. An Application Gateway has been placed in front of the App Service and has been deployed with both a public listener (listening on 8443) and a private listener (listening on 443). The application is accessible to internal clients (such as the VMs in the shared service virtual network) by issuing an HTTP request to Azure Private DNS provides the necessary DNS resolution for internal clients.

The deployed Python application retrieves the current time from a public API (assuming the API is up) and returns the source IP on the HTTP request as well as the X-Forwarded-For header. I’ll use this application to show some of the caveats of this pattern that are worth knowing if you ever plan to operationalize it.

To maintain visibility and control of traffic coming in either publicly or privately to the application, the route table assigned to the Application Gateway subnet is configured to route traffic through the Azure Firewall instance in the hub before allowing the traffic to the App Service. This pattern allows for democratization of Application Gateway while maintaining the ability to exercise additional IDS/IPS (intrusion detection/intrusion prevention) via the security appliance in the hub.

Lab Environment

Imagine this application is serving up confidential data and you need to provide a partner organization with access. Your information security team does not want the partner accessing the application over the Internet due to the sensitivity of the information the partner will be accessing. While direct connectivity with the partner is an option, it would likely result in a significant amount of design to ensure the partner’s network only knows about the application IP space and appropriate firewall rules are in place to limit access to the Application Gateway endpoint. In this scenario, your organization will be the provider and the customer’s organization will be the consumer. I don’t know about you, but I’ve been in this situation a lot of times in my past. Back in the day (yeah I’m old, what of it?) you’d have to go the direct connectivity route and you’d spend months putting together a design and getting it approved by the powers that be. Let’s now look at how the new Private Link feature of Application Gateway can make this whole problem a lot easier to solve.

Assume this partner has a presence in Azure so we don’t have to get into the complexity of alternatives (such as building an isolated virtual network with VPN Gateway the partner connects to). The service could be exposed to the customer using the architecture below. Note that I’ve trimmed down the provider environment to show only the workload virtual network and illustrated a few compute services on the consumer end that are capable of accessing services exposed through Private Endpoints.

Goal State

In the above image you will notice a new subnet in the provider’s virtual network. This subnet is used for the Private Link configuration. Traffic entering the provider environment will be NATed to an IP within this subnet. You can opt to use an existing subnet, but I’d recommend dedicating a subnet instead vs mixing it within the any of the application tier subnets.

There are considerations when sizing the subnet. Each IP allocated to the subnet can be used to service 64,000 connections and you can have up to eight IP addresses as of today allowing you to escape with a /28 (5 IP addresses reserved by Azure + 8 IPs for PrivateLink configuration). Just remember this is preview so that limit could be changed in the future. For the purposes of this post I used a /24 since I’m terrible at subnetting.

New subnet for Private Link Configuration

It’s time to create the Private Link configuration now that the subnet is in place. This can be done in all the usual ways (Portal, CLI, PowerShell, REST). When using the Portal you will need to navigate to the Application Gateway instance you’re using, select the Private Link menu item and select the option to add a new Private Link configuration.

Private Link Configuration Setup

On the next screen you will need to select the subnet you’ll use for the Private Link configuration. You will also pick the listener you want to expose and determine the number of IPs you want to allocate to the service. Note that both the public and private listeners are available. If you’re exposing a service within your virtual network, you’ll likely be creating these with private listeners almost exclusively. A use case for a public listener might be a single client wants a more consistent network experience provided by their ExpressRoute or VPN connectivity into Azure vs going over the Internet.

Private Link configuration

Once completed, you can freely create Private Endpoints for your service within the same tenant. Within the same tenant, your Private Link service will be detected when creating a Private Endpoint as seen below. All that is left for you to do is create a DNS entry that matches the FQDN you are presenting within the certificates loaded on your Application Gateway. At this point you should be saying, “That’s all well and good Matt, but my use case is providing this to a consumer in a DIFFERENT tenant.” Let’s explore that scenario.

Creating Private Endpoint in same tenant

I switched to a subscription in a separate Azure AD tenant which would represent the consumer. In this tenant I created a virtual network with a single subnet with the IP space of which overlaps with the provider’s network demonstrating that overlapping IP space doesn’t matter with Private Link. In that subnet I placed a VM running Ubuntu that I would use to SSH in. I created this resources in the Australia East region to demonstrate that the service exposed via Private Link can have Private Endpoints created for it in any other Azure region. Connections made through the Private Endpoint will ride the Azure backbone to the destined service.

Once the basics were in place for testing, I then created the Private Endpoint for the provider service within the consumer’s network. This can be done through the Private Link Center blade using the Private Endpoint menu item in the Azure Portal as seen below.

Creation of Private Endpoint

On the resource screen you will need to provide the resource id of the Application Gateway and the listener name. This is additional information you would need to pass to the consumer of any Application Gateway Private Link enabled service.

Private Endpoint Creation – Resource

Bouncing back to the provider tenant, I navigated back to the Application Gateway resource and the Private Link menu item under the Private endpoint connections section. Private Endpoint creation for Private Link services across tenant work via request and approval process. Here I was able to approve the association of the consumer’s Private Endpoint with the Private Link service in the provider tenant.

Approval of Private Endpoint association

Once approved, I bounced back to the consumer tenant and grabbed the IP address assigned to the Private Endpoint that was created. I then SSH’d into the Ubuntu VM and created a DNS entry in the host file of the VM for the service I was consuming. In this scenario, I had created a listener on the Application Gateway which handles all requests from * Once the DNS record was created, I then used curl to issue a request to the application. Success!

Successful access of application from consumer

The application spits back the client IP and X-Forwarded-For header of the HTTP request. Ignore the client IP of, that is appearing due to the load balancer component of the App Service. Focus instead on the X-Forwarded-For. Notice that the first value in the header is the NATd IP from the subnet that was dedicated to the Private Link service. The next IP in line is the private IP address of the Azure Firewall instance. As I mentioned earlier, the Application Gateway is configured to send incoming traffic through the Azure Firewall instance for additional inspection before passing on to the App Service instance. The Azure Firewall is configured for NAT to ensure traffic symmetry in this scenario.

What I want you to take away from the above is that the Private Link service is NATing the traffic, so unless the consumer has a forward web proxy on the other end appending to the X-Forwarded-For header (or potentially other headers to aid with identification), troubleshooting a user’s connection will take careful correlation of requests across App Gateway, Azure Firewall, and the underlining application logs. In the below image, you can see I used curl to add a value to the X-Forwarded-For header which was carried on through the request.

Request with X-Forwarded-For value added by consumer

What I love about this integration is it’s very simple to setup and it allows a whole bunch of additional security controls to be introduced into the flow such as the Application Gateway WAF or a firewall’s IDS/IPS features.

Here are some key takeaways for you to ponder on over this holiday break:

  • For HTTP/HTTPS traffic, the Application Gateway Private Link pattern allows for the introduction of additional security controls into the network flow beyond what you’d get with a Private Link service fronted by an Azure Standard Load Balancer
  • Setup for the consumer is very simple. All you need to do is provide them with the resource id of the application gateway and the listener name. They can then use the native Private Endpoint creation experience to setup access to your service.
  • Don’t forget the importance of ensuring the customer trusts the certificate the Application Gateway is providing and can reach applicable CRL/OCSP endpoints if you’re using them. Best bet is to use a trusted 3rd party certificate authority.
  • DNS DNS DNS. The customer will need to manage the relevant DNS records on their end. You will want to ensure they know which FQDNs you are including within your certificate so the records they create match those FQDNs. If there is a mismatch, any secure session setup will fail.

With that said, feel free to give the feature a try. You can use the lab I’ve posted on GitHub and the steps I’ve outlined in this blog to experiment with the service yourself.

Have a happy holiday!

Revisiting UDR improvements for Private Endpoints

Revisiting UDR improvements for Private Endpoints

Hello folks! It’s been a busy past few months. I’ve been neck deep in summer activities, customer work, and building some learning labs for the wider Azure community. I finally had some time today to dig into the NSG and improved routing features for Private Endpoints that finally hit GA (general availability) last month. While I had written about the routing changes while the features were in public preview, I wanted to do a bit more digging now that it is officially GA. In this post I’ll take a closer look at the routing changes and try to clear up some of the confusion I’ve come across about what this feature actually does.

If you work for a company using Azure, likely you’ve come across Private Endpoints. I’ve written extensively about the feature over the course of the past few years covering some of the quirks that are introduced using it at scale in an enterprise. I’d encourage you to review some of those other posts if you’re unfamiliar with Private Endpoints or you’re interested in knowing the challenges that drove feature changes such as the NSG and improved routing features.

At the most basic level, Private Endpoints are a way to control network access to instances of PaaS (platform-as-a-service) services you consume in Microsoft Azure (they can also be used for PrivateLink Services you build yourself). Like most public clouds, every instance of a PaaS service in Azure is by default available over a public IP. While there are some basic controls layer 3 controls, such as IP restrictions offered for Azure App Services or the basic firewall that comes with Azure Storage, the service is only accessible directly via its public IP address. From an operations perspective, this can lead to inconsistencies with performance when users access the services behind Private Endpoints since the access is over an Internet connection. On the security side of the fence, it can make requirements to inspect and mediate the traffic with full featured security appliances problematic. There can even be a risk of data exfiltration if you are forced to allow access to the Internet for an entire service (such as * Additionally, you may have internal policies driven by regulation that restrict sensitive data to being accessible only within your more heavily controlled private network.

PaaS with no Private Endpoint

Private Endpoints help solve the issues above by creating a network endpoint (virtual network interface) for the instance of your PaaS service inside of your Azure VNet (virtual network). This can help provide consistent performance when accessing the application because the traffic can now flow over an ExpressRoute Private Peering versus the user’s Internet connection. Now that traffic is flowing through your private network, you can direct that traffic to security appliances such as a Palo Alto to centrally mediate, log, and optionally inspect traffic up to and including at layer 7. Each endpoint is also for a specific instance of a service, which can mitigate the risk of data exfiltration since you could block all access to a specific Azure PaaS service if accessed through your Internet connection.

PaaS with Private Endpoint

While this was possible prior to the new routing improvements that went into GA in August, it was challenging to manage at scale. I cover the challenge in detail in this post, but the general gist of it is the Azure networking fabric creates a /32 system route in each subnet within the virtual network where the Private Endpoint is placed as well as any directly peered VNets. If you’re familiar with the basics of Azure routing you’ll understand how this could be problematic in the situation where the traffic needs to be routed through a security appliance for mediation, logging, or inspection. To get around this problem customers had to create /32 UDRs (user-defined route) to override this system route. In a hub and spoke architecture with enough Private Endpoints, this can hit the limit of routes allowed on a route table.

An example of an architecture that historically solved for this is shown below. If you have user on-premises (A) trying to get to a Private Endpoint in the spoke (H) through the Application Gateway (L) and you have a requirement to inspect that traffic via a security appliance (F, E), you need to create a /32 route on the Application Gateway’s subnet to direct the traffic back to the security appliance. If that traffic is instead for some other type of service that isn’t fronted by an App Gateway (such as Log Analytics Workspace or Azure SQL instance), those UDRs need to be placed on the route table of the Virtual Network Gateway (B). The latter scenario is where scale and SNAT (see my other post for detail on this) can quickly become a problem.

Common workaround for inspection of Private Endpoint traffic

To demonstrate the feature, I’m going to use my basic hub and spoke lab with the addition of an App Service running a very basic Python Flask application I wrote to show header and IP information from a web request. I’ve additionally setup a S2S VPN connection with a pfSense appliance I have running at home which is exchanging routes via BGP with the Virtual Network Gateway. The resulting lab looks like the below.

Lab environment

Since Microsoft still has no simple way to enumerate effective routes without a VM’s NIC being in the subnet, and I wanted to see the system routes that the Virtual Network Gateway was getting (az network vnet-gateway list-learned-routes will not do this for you), I created a new subnet and plopped a VM into it. Looking at the route table, the /32 route for the Private Endpoint was present.

Private Endpoint /32 route

Since this was temporary and I didn’t want to mess with DNS in my on-premises lab, I created a host file entry on the on-premises machine for the App Service’s FQDN pointing to the Private Endpoint IP address. I then accessed the service from a web browser on that machine. The contents of the web request show the IP address of my machine as expected because my traffic is entering the Azure networking plane via my S2S VPN and going immediately to the Private Endpoint for the App Service.

Request without new Private Endpoint features turned on

As I covered earlier, prior to these new features being introduced, to get this traffic going through my Azure Firewall instance I would have had to create /32 UDR on the Virtual Network Gateway’s route table and I would have had to SNAT at the firewall to ensure traffic symmetry (the SNAT component is covered in a prior post). The new feature lifts the requirement for the /32 route, but in a very interesting way.

The golden rule for networking has long been the most specific route is the preferred route. For example, in Azure the /32 system route for the Private Endpoint will the preferred route even if you put in a static route for the subnet’s CIDR block (/24 for example). The new routing feature for Private Endpoints does not follow this rule as we’ll see.

Support for NSGs and routing improvements for Private Endpoints is disabled by default. There is a property of each subnet in a VNet called privateEndpointNetworkPolicies which is set to disabled by default. Swapping this property from disabled to enabled kicks off the new features. One thing to note is you only have to enable this on the subnet containing the Private Endpoint.

In my lab environment I swapped the property for the snet-app subnet in the workload VNet. Looking back at the route table for the VM in the transit virtual network, we now see that the /32 route has been made invalid. The /16 route pointing all traffic to the workload VNet to the Azure Firewall is now the route the traffic will take, which allows me to mediate and optionally inspect the traffic.

Route table after privateEndpointNetworkPolicies property enabled on Private Endpoint subnet

Refreshing the web page from the on-premises VM now shows a source IP of which is one of the IPs included in the Azure Firewall subnet. Take note that I have an application rule in place in Azure Firewall which means it uses its transparent proxy feature to ensure traffic symmetry. If I had a network rule in place, I’d have to ensure Azure Firewall is SNATing my traffic (which it won’t do by default for RFC1918 traffic). While some services (Azure Storage being one of them) will work without SNAT with Private Endpoints, it’s best practice to SNAT since all other services require it. The requirement will likely be addressed in a future release.

Request with new routing features enabled

While the support for NSGs for Private Endpoints is awesome, the routing improvements are a feature that shouldn’t be overlooked. Let me summarize the key takeaways:

  • Routing improvements (docs call it UDR support which I think is a poor and confusing description) for Private Endpoints are officially general available.
  • SNAT is still required and best practice for traffic symmetry to ensure return traffic from Private Endpoints takes the same route back to the user.
  • The privateEndpointNetworkPolicies property only needs to be set on the subnet containing the Private Endpoints. The routing improvements will then be active for those Private Endpoints for any route table assigned to a subnet within the Private Endpoint’s VNet or any directly peered VNets.
  • Even though the /32 route is still there, it is now invalidated by a less specific UDR when this setting is set on a Private Endpoints subnet. You could create a UDR for the subnet CIDR containing the Private Endpoints or the entire VNet as I did in this lab. Remember this an exception to the route specificity rule.

Well folks, that sums up this post. Hopefully got some value out of it!

A look at the Azure DNS Private Resolver

10/12/22 Update – Private Resolver is now Generally Available!

Hello again!

Today I’m going to cover the new Azure DNS Private Resolver feature that recently went into public preview. I’ve written extensively about Azure DNS in the past and I recommend reading through that series if you’re new to the platform. It has grown to be significantly important in Azure architectures due to its role in name resolution for Private Endpoints. A common pain point for customers using Private Endpoints from on-premises is the requirement to have a VM in Azure capable of acting as a DNS proxy. This is explained in detail in this post. The Azure DNS Private Resolver seeks to ease that pain by providing a managed DNS solution capable of acting as a DNS proxy and conditional forwarder facilitating hybrid DNS resolution (for those of you coming from AWS, this is Azure’s Route 53 Resolver). Alexis Plantin beat me to the punch and put together a great write-up on the basics of the feature so my focus instead be on some additional scenarios and a pattern that I tested and validated.

I’m a big fan of keeping infrastructure services such as DNS centralized and under the management of central IT. This is one reason I’m partial to a landing zone with a dedicated shared services virtual network attached to the transit virtual network as illustrated in the image below. In this shared services virtual network you put your DNS, patching/update infrastructure, and potentially identity services such as Windows Active Directory. The virtual network and its resources can then be dropped into a dedicated subscription and locked down to central IT. Additionally, as an added bonus, keeping the transit virtual network dedicated to firewalls and virtual network gateways makes the eventual migration to Azure Virtual WAN that must easier.

Common landing zone design

The design I had in mind would place the Private Resolver in the shared services virtual network and would funnel all traffic to and from the resolver and on-premises or another spoke through the firewall in the transit virtual network. This way I could control the conversation, inspect the traffic if needed, and centrally log it. The lab environment I built to test the design is pictured below.

Lab environment

The first question I had was whether or not the inbound endpoint would obey the user defined routes in the custom route table I associated with the inbound endpoint subnet. To test this theory I made a DNS query from the VM running in spoke 2 to resolve an A record in a Private DNS Zone. This Private DNS Zone was only linked to the virtual network where the Private Resolvers were. If the inbound endpoint wasn’t capable of obeying the custom routes, then the return traffic would be dropped and my query would fail.

Result of query from VM in another spoke

Success! The inbound endpoint is returning traffic back through the firewall. Logs on the firewall confirm the traffic flowing through.

Firewall logs showing DNS traffic from spoke

Next I wanted to see if traffic from the outbound endpoint would obey the custom routes. To test this, I configured a DNS forwarding rule (conditional forwarding component of the service) to send all DNS queries for back to the domain controller running in my lab. I then performed a DNS query from the VM running in spoke 2.

Firewall logs showing DNS traffic to on-premises

Success again as the query was answered! The traffic from the outbound endpoint is seen traversing the firewall on its way to my domain controller on-premises. This confirmed that both the inbound and outbound endpoints obey custom routing making the design I presented above viable.

Beyond the above, I also confirmed the Private Resolver is capable of resolving reverse lookup zones (for PTR records). I was happy to see reverse zones weren’t forgotten.

One noticeable gap today is the Private Resolver does not yet offer DNS query logging. If that is important to you, you may want to retain your existing DNS Proxy. If you happen to be using Azure Firewall, you could make use of the DNS Proxy feature which allows for logging of DNS queries. Azure Firewall could then be configured to use the Private Resolver as its resolver providing that conditional forward capability Azure Firewall’s DNS Proxy feature lacks.

That wraps up this post.


Private Endpoints Revisited: NSGs and UDRs

Private Endpoints Revisited: NSGs and UDRs

Update September 2022 – Route summarization and NSGs are now generally available for Private Endpoints!

Welcome back fellow geeks!

It’s been a while since my last post. For the past few months I’ve been busy renewing some AWS certificates and putting together some Azure networking architectures on GitHub. A new post was long overdue, so I thought it would be fun to circle back to Private Endpoints yet again. I’ve written extensively about the topic over the past few years, yet there always seems more to learn.

There have historically been two major pain points with Private Endpoints which include routing complexity when trying to inspect traffic to Private Endpoints and a lack of NSG (network security groups) support. Late last year Microsoft announced in public preview a feature to help with the routing and support for NSGs. I typically don’t bother tinkering with features in public preview because the features often change once GA (generally available) or never make it to GA. Now that these two features are further along and likely close to GA, it was finally a good time to experiment with them.

I built out a simple lab with a hub and spoke architecture. There were two spoke VNets (virtual networks). The first spoke contained a single subnet with a VM, a private endpoint for a storage account, and a private endpoint for a Key Vault. The second spoke contained a single VM. Within the hub I had two subnets. One subnet contained a VM which would be used to route traffic between spokes, and the other contained a VM for testing routing changes. All VMs ran Ubuntu. Private DNS zones were defined for both Key Vault and blob storage and linked to all VNets to keep DNS simple for this test case.

Lab setup

Each spoke subnet had a custom route table assigned with a route to the other spoke set with a next hop as the VM acting as a router in the hub.

Once the lab was setup, I had to enable the preview features in the subscription I wanted to test with. This was done using the az feature command.

az feature register --namespace Microsoft.Network --name AllowPrivateEndpointNSG

The feature took about 30 minutes to finish registering. You can use the command below to track the registration process. While the feature is registering the state will report as registering, and when complete the state will be registered.

az feature show --namespace Microsoft.Network --name AllowPrivateEndpointNSG

Once the feature was ready to go, I first decided to test the new UDR feature. As I’ve covered in a prior post, creation of a private endpoint in a VNet creates a /32 route for the private endpoint’s IP address in both the VNet it is provisioned into as well as any directly peered VNets. This can be problematic when you need to route traffic coming from on-premises through a security appliance like a Palo Alto firewall running in Azure to inspect the traffic and perform IDS/IPS. Since Azure has historically selected the most specific prefix match for routing, and the GatewaySubnet in the hub would contain the /32 routes, you would be forced to create unique /32 UDRs (user-defined routes) for each private endpoint. This can created a lot of overhead and even risked hitting the maximum of 400 UDRs per route table.

With the introduction of these new features, Microsoft has made it easier to deal with the /32 routes. You can now create a more summarized UDR and that will take precedence over the more specific system route. Yes folks, I know this is confusing. Personally, I would have preferred Microsoft had gone the route of a toggle switch which would disable the /32 route from propagating into peered VNets. However, we have what we have.

Let’s take a look at it in action. The image below shows the effective routes on the network interface associated with the second VM in the hub. The two /32 routes for the private endpoints are present and active.

Effective routes for second VM in the hub

Before the summarized UDR can be added, you need to set a property on the subnet containing the Private Endpoint. There is a property on each subnet in a virtual network named PrivateEndpointNetworkPolicies. When a private endpoint is created in a subnet this property is set disabled. This property needs to be set to enabled. This is done by setting the –disable-private-endpoint-network-policies parameter to false as seen below.

az network vnet subnet update \
  --disable-private-endpoint-network-policies false \
  --name snet-pri \
  --resource-group rg-demo-routing \
  --vnet-name vnet-spoke-1

I then created a route table, added a route for with a next hop of the router at, and assigned the route table to the second VM’s subnet. The effective routes on the network interface for the second VM now show the two /32s as invalid with new route now active.

Effective routes for second VM in the hub after routing change

A quick tcpdump on the router shows the traffic flowing through the router as we have defined in our routes.

tcpdump of router

For fun, let’s try that same wget on the Key Vault private endpoint.

Uh-oh. Why aren’t I getting back a 404 and why am I not seeing the other side of conversation on the router? If you guessed asymmetric routing you’d be spot on! To fix this I would need to setup the iptables on my router to NAT (network address translation) to the router’s address. The reason attaching a route table to the spoke 1 subnet the private endpoints wouldn’t work is because private endpoints do not honor UDRs. I imagine you’re scratching your head asking why it worked with the storage account and not with Key Vault? Well folks, it’s because Microsoft does something funky at the SDN (software defined networking) layer for storage that is not done for any other service’s private endpoints. I bring this up because I wasted a good hour scratching my head as to why this was working without NAT until I came across that buried issue in the Microsoft documentation. So take this nugget of knowledge with you, storage account private endpoint networking works differently from all other PaaS service private networking in Azure. Sadly, when things move fast, architectural standards tend to be one of the things that fall into the “we’ll get back to that on a later release” bucket.

So wonderful, the pain of /32 routes is gone! Sure we still need to NAT because private endpoints still don’t honor UDRs attached to their subnet, but the pain is far less than it was with the /32 mess. One thing to take from this gain is there is a now a disclaimer to Azure routing precedence. When it comes to routing with private endpoints, UDRs take precedence over the system route even if the system route is more specific.

Now let’s take a look at NSG support. I next created an NSG and associated it to the private endpoint’s subnet. I added a deny rule blocking all https traffic from the VM in spoke 2.

NSG applied to private endpoint subnet

Running a wget on the VM in spoke 2 to the blob storage endpoint on the private endpoint in spoke 1 returns the file successfully. The NSG does not take effect simply by enabling the feature. The PrivateEndpointNetworkPolicies property I mentioned above must be set to enabled.

After setting the property, the change takes about a minute or two to complete. Once complete, running another wget from the VM in spoke 2 failed to make a connection validating the NSG is working as expected.

NSG blocking connection

One thing to be aware of is NSG flow logs will not log the connection at this time. Hopefully this will be worked out by GA.

Well folks that’s it for this post. The key things you should take aware are the following:

  • Testing these features requires registering the feature on the subscription AND setting the PrivateEndpointNetworkPolicies property to enabled on the subnet. Keep in mind setting this property is required for both UDR summarization and enabling NSG support. (Thank you to my peer Silvia Wibowo for pointing out that it is also required for UDR summarization).
  • NAT is still required to ensure symmetric routing when traffic is coming from on-premises or another spoke. The only exception are private endpoints for Azure Storage because it operates different at the SDN.
  • The UDR feature for private endpoints makes less-specific UDRs take precedence over the more specific private endpoint system route.
  • NSG and summarized UDR support for private endpoints are still in public preview and are not recommended for production until GA.
  • NSG Flow Logs do not log connection attempts to private endpoints at this time.

See you next post!